Building a library:

What's What in the Reference Collection

This list was compiled primarily to aid in the effective and informed use of many of the tools housed in the Library’s reference collection. It includes many, though by no means all, of the works in the reference collection, as well as some non-reference tools.

The entries consist of the bibliographic citation followed by a brief annotation giving the salient features of the tools to aid the user in knowing which tools would be the most useful. The annotations come from several reference works: Reference works for theological research, Robert Kepple and John Muether (REF Z 7751 .K46); Recent reference books in religion, William Johnston (REF Z 7751 .J654); Guide to reference books, Robert Balay (REF Z 1035.1 .G89); as well some written by the Library staff. Following the annotation is the call number of the book for your ease in finding the work.



The Oxford English Dictionary. J. A. Simpson and E. S. C. Weiner. 2nd ed. 20 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.
Unlike standard dictionaries, the OED presents a historical record of the English language. Describes the history of each word in use since 1150, with meaning, pronunciation, and date of its first documented use. Altogether, defines Over 500,000 words. The second edition incorporates the four supplements to the first edition, along with additions and revisions, and attempts to reflect world-wide use of the English language rather than the more British emphasis of the first edition. Also available electronically on CD-ROM. REF PE 1625 .C6


The Elements of Style. William Strunk Jr. and E. B. White. 3rd ed. New York: Macmillan, 1979.
A small paperback which has become a classic on writing style. Covers elementary rules of usage, elementary principles of composition, matters of form, words and expressions commonly misused, and comments on style. Must reading. PE 1408 .S772


The Chicago Manual of Style. 14th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.
Previously titled A Manual of Style. For theology, this is the style manual most widely used by book and journal publishers. Has a wealth of detailed information on many matters of style and publishing. An indispensable tool for writers. While Turabian (T15) summarizes parts of this work, it is still necessary for other features, e.g. the chapter on "Foreign Languages in Type" (which includes information on capitalization) and the chapter on "Indexes" and their preparation. The 13th edition is heavily revised and expanded, emphasizing "the impact of the new technology on the entire editing and publishing process" and which endorses the name-date and reference list style of footnoting. Has detailed index. CIRC DESK & REF Z253 .C57

A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. Kate L. Turabian. 6th ed., rev. and expanded by Bonnie Birtwistle Honigsblum. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1996.
Summarizes and adapts the Chicago Manual of Style for the person producing a typewritten thesis, dissertation, paper, etc. Stresses information on typewritten style and footnote and bibliography forms. Latest edition incorporates the "parenthetical reference" citation method, and has a section on computerized word processing. Many schools use this as their standard. Good index. CIRC DESK & REF LB 2369 .T8

"Instructions for Contributors." Journal of Biblical Literature 107 (1988): 579-596.
Gives instructions for handling special matters of style in biblical studies papers. Intended to supplement the Chicago Manual of Style. A number of other theological journals now follow these guidelines. In particular, it gives an extended list of permissible abbreviations for the biblical books, pseudepigraphical books, early patristic works, Dead Sea Scroll texts, Targumic materials, Mishnaic and related literature, other Rabbinic works, and the Nag Harnmadi texts; and "abbreviations of commonly used periodicals, reference works, and serials." Pakala Reserve

Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. 4th ed. Washington: American Psychological Association, c1994.
"This Publication Manual draws its rules from a large body of psychological literature, from editors and authors experienced in psychological practices. Writers who employ this Manual conscientiously will express their ideas in a form and style both accepted by and familiar to a broad readership in psychology."-Introd. REF BF76.7.P83


For finding the meaning of an abbreviation, the IATG is the largest list - but it only covers serials; ABD is the most comprehensive list, and the easiest to use; the “Instructions for Contributors” is handy and for what it covers, as close as there is to definitive.

Internationales Abluraungsverzeichnis fur Theologie und Grenzgebiete: Zeitschriften, Serien, Lexika, Quellenwerke, mit bibliographischen Angaben. Siegfried Schwertner. New York: de Gruyter, 1974.
Abbreviated IATG
An "International Glossary of Abbreviations for Theology and Related Subjects: Periodicals, Series, Encyclopedias, Sources, with Bibliographical Notes. A contribution towards the standardization of title abbreviations, offering suggested standard abbreviations for about 7,500 titles." Includes two major sections: one arranged alphabetically by the abbreviations and one arranged alphabetically by the names being abbreviated. CIRC DESK

"Instructions for Contributors", Journal of Biblical Literature
It gives an extended list of permissible abbreviations for the biblical books, pseudepigraphical books, early patristic works, Dead Sea Scroll texts, Targumic materials, Mishnaic and related literature, other Rabbinic works, and the Nag Harnmadi texts; and "abbreviations of commonly used periodicals, reference works, and serials." Pakala Reserve or JBL 107/3 (1988) 579-596

Anchor Bible Dictionary
Beginning on either page vii or ix, depending on the volume, each volume includes a lengthy list of abbreviations of biblical books, pseudepigraphical books, patristic works, apocryphal works, Dead Sea Scroll texts, Bible translations, scholarly works, periodicals, reference materials, etc. REF BS 440 .A54


Who Was Who in America: a Companion Biographical Reference Work to "Who’s Who in America."Chicago: Marquis, 1942- .
Now nine volumes, covering 1897-1989. Includes the biographical entry (with death date) of those who were dropped from Who’s Who in America at death. A cumulative index for 1607-1989 was published as a separate volume. REF E 176 .W64

Dictionary of American Biography. Published under the Auspices of the American Council of Learned Societies. 20 vols. and Index. New York: Scribner, 1928-37.
The major scholarly American biographical tool. Includes long essays with bibliographies by specialists. Planned to include all noteworthy persons of all periods who lived in the area of the U.S. Indexed by: names of biographers, contributors, birthplaces, schools and colleges attended, occupations, and topical subjects. REF E 176 .D562

Dictionary of American Religious Biography. Henry Warner Bowden. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1977.
Brief articles on 425 individuals "from all denominations who played a significant role in our nation’s past." Emphasizes the wide pluralism of American religion. Includes bibliographies of material by and about each individual. REF BL 72 .B68

Who’s Who in the Clergy: Vol. 1,1935-36. Edited by J.C. Schwarz. New York: the author, 1936.
Lists about 7,000 clergy alive and prominent in 1936. Gives brief biographical data including birthdate, education, positions and posts, and publications. This work, and the volume below, will provide information on the more obscure religious authors of the period who are not included in other biographical sources.
Religious Leaders of America: Vol. 2, 1941-42. Edited by J.C. Schwarz. New York: the Author, 1941.
Later edition of the above work, similar in form and content. REF BR 1700 .S3

Dictionary of National Biography. Edited by Leslie Stephen and Sidney Lee. 22 vols. London: Smith, Elder, 1908-09.
A scholarly biographic source for Britons and those of significance to the history of Britain who died before 1900, including numerous clergymen. Long articles by specialists with bibliographies. REF DA 28 .D45

Contemporary authors: a bio-bibliographical guide to current authors and their works. 11 vols. Detroit: Gale, 1979.
Published to give an up-to-date source of biographical information on current authors in many fieldshumanities, social sciences, and sciences-and from many countries. Sketches attempt to give, as pertinent: personal facts (including names of parents, children, etc.), career, writings (as complete a bibliography as possible), work in progress, sidelights, and occasional biographical sources. Current to early 1979. REF Z 1224 .C59


World Almanac and Book of Facts. New York: Newspaper Enterprise Association, 1868- . Annual.
Still the best almanac available, it is "a compendium of facts and useful information," e.g. the dates of Easter, cost-of-living statistics, denominational information, etc. Includes extensive index at the front of each volume. If the World Almanac is not available, other almanacs will often fill its place (e g. Information Please Almanac, Reader’s Digest Almanac). REF AY 64 Our most current is 1995

Encyclopedia of Associations. 5 vols. Detroit: Gale, 1961- . Annual.
Contents: v. 1—National Organizations of the U.S.; v. 2—Geographic and Executive Indexes; v. 3—New Associations and Projects; v. 4—International Organizations; v. 5—Research Activities and Funding Programs. Lists over 18,000 active associations, including information on full name, address, officers, purposes, activities, membership, publications, etc. Extensive indexes provide access to each entry by name, important words in the name, and by specific subject. REF AS 22 .E5 Our most current is 1992

American Library Directory. 2 vols. New York: Bowker, 1923 Annual.
Frequency, subtitle, and compiler varies. The 42nd ed. (1989-90) lists over 30,00 (U.S. and over 3,000 Canadian academic, public, special, and government libraries. Arranged by state or province, then by city, then alphabetically by name. Also includes over 400 networks, consortia, and cooperative efforts. The information given includes: full name, address, telephone, personnel names special collections owned, statistics on size and service. Has name index. Very helpful for locating most libraries in a given geographical area. CIRC DESK


Guide to Schools and Departments of Religion and Seminaries in the United States and Canada: Degree Programs in Religious Studies. William Burgess, ed. New York: Macmillan, 1986.
Lists over 700 accredited programs of religion and theology in North America. Entries are listed alphabetically under each province or state. Each listing includes: address, tuition and fees, calendar, entrance requirements, degrees granted, and description of the background and mission of each school. Institutional and denominational affiliation indexes. REF BV 4030 .G85

International handbook of universities and other institutions of higher education. 1962-. Paris: International Assoc. of Universities, 1963- . Triennial.
Entries contain a basic description of each institution, as well as information about degrees offered; admissions; costs; names of high-ranking administrative officers and heads of major academic components; languages of instruction; academic year; and university publications. Arranged by country. Index of institutions. Omits coverage of institutions in the U.S. and the Commonwealth, which are found in what can be considered its companion publications, American universities and colleges (see below) and Commonwealth universities yearbook (see below). REF L 900 .I58 Our most recent is 1991

American universities and colleges. Produced in collaboration with the American Council on Education. N.Y.: W. de. Gruyter, 1928- .
The preeminent directory of American institutions of higher education. The 14th ed. (1992) describes more than 1,900 accredited schools offering baccalaureate or higher degrees. Its main section, arranged by State, presents narrative data for each college, covering history, institutional structure and control, admissions and degree requirements, enrollment and degrees conferred, fees and financial arrangements, numbers of teachers in specific departments and degrees they hold, library collections, and student life (dormitories, intercollegiate athletics, car regulations, surrounding communities). Another section lists institutions offering professional degrees at baccalaureate, masters, and doctoral levels, arranged alphabetically by course of study. A beginning section presents survey articles on higher education in the U.S. Appendixes outline academic customs and ceremonies, list colleges with ROTC units, and provide statistical data on degrees conferred by American colleges, 1861-1986. Institutional index. REF LA 226 .A65 Our most recent is 1992

College blue book. N.Y.: Macmillan, 1972- .
A leading directory of American and Canadian colleges. In five volumes. Vol. 1, Narrative descriptions, provides information for some 3,000 institutions, with entries arranged by state or province. Vol. 2, Tabular data, outlines information such as costs, accreditation, enrollment, and faculty characteristics; it also gives the names of college presidents, registrars, and admissions officers. Vol. 3 is in two parts: Degrees offered by college, which lists for each school the majors it offers; Degrees offered by subject provides a list of all majors offered showing which schools offer each major. All three volumes have indexes by institution; v. 2 also includes indexes of intercollegiate athletics and of professional accreditation. REF LA 226 .C685 Our most recent is 1991

Commonwealth universities yearbook. 1958- . London: Assoc. of Commonwealth Universities, 1958 . Annual.
"A directory of the universities of the Commonwealth and the handbook of their association"-t.p. Extensive information on individual universities, including names of faculty members, arranged alphabetically by country. For some nations, prefatory articles give information on admissions, programs, the academic calendar, etc. General, personal name, institution, and subject of study indexes; glossary of abbreviations of degrees. REF L 915 .C65 Our most recent is 1992


Use these tools for information about religious organizations and denominations such as addresses, membership, names of officers, and other statistical information. Some also contain historical and/or theological information about the sects and denominations.

The Encyclopedia of American Religions. J. Gordon Melton. 5th ed. Detroit: Gale, 1996.
Covers nearly 1,600 primary religious bodies in the United States. Classed arrangement, with each religious group placed within one of 22 "families" or listed under "unclassified" groups. Gives considerable detail and covers many minor groups. Indexed by religious organization, educational institution, personal names, publications, geographical location, and subject. REF BL 2530 .U6 M443

A Directory of Religious and Parareligious Bodies and Organizations in the United States. James V. Geisendorfer. Lewiston, N.Y.: E. Mellen Press, 1989.
An alphabetical name-address listing of over 5,700 religious and parareligious groups in the U.S. Includes cross-references for alternative and former organizational names. Particularly helpful for its data on non- Christian (Hindu, Jewish, Sufi, Buddhist, Muslim, Sikh, etc.) groups. REF BL 2525 .G43

Handbook of Denominations in the United States. Frank S. Mead. New 10th ed. rev. by Samuel S. Hill. Nashville: Abingdon, 1995.
Intended to give a brief, impartial account of each body—its history, doctrine, present status, etc. Also gives an evaluation of the group’s doctrinal beliefs. Each denomination is listed under the religious tradition to which it belongs. Includes a glossary of terms, a list of addresses of denominational headquarters, a bibliography of material about each denomination, and a name and subject index. REF BR 516.5 .M38

The Directory of Religious Organizations in the United States. 3rd ed. Falls Church, VA: McGrath Publishing Co., 1993.
Describes 1,628 general organizations active in the field of religion, excluding religious bodies and religious orders. For each gives (as applicable): the full name, the religious affiliation, address and telephone number, chief officer, staff & membership size, a brief summary of the purpose and work of the organization, and its specific activities (publications, radio/TV programs, meetings, etc.). Entries are arranged alphabetically with no indexes. The 1st ed. (Consortium, 1977) listed 328 religious orders (dropped from the 2nd ed.) and 1,241 general organizations arranged topically with a name index. REF BL 2350 .U6 M441

Yearbook of American and Canadian Churches. Nashville: Abingdon, 1916- . Annual.
The standard directory, sponsored by the National Council of Churches. Does not include cults and small groups. Gives extensive information on each group, including: various sub-bodies within the denomination, addresses, brief description of its organizational set-up, names and addresses of officers, membership statistics, etc. Indexed by name of organization and denomination. Along with the directory this work also contains a statistical and historical section on Christianity in the U.S. and Canada. REF BR 513 .Y4

National Directory of Churches, Synagogues, and Other Houses of Worship. v.2 Midwestern States. J. Gordon Melton. Detroit: Gale Research Inc., 1994.
This volume covers IL, IN, IA, KS, MI, MN, MO, NE, ND, OH, SD, and WI. The work is split into two sections. In the first, entries are arranged alphabetically by state, then city, and by religious family. Each entry provides the church name, address, telephone number, and sometimes congregation size range. In the second, the entries are arranged alphabetically by the church name - giving only the city and state. Back cover lists the 24 “religious families” covered by the work - includes not only Christian but also Hindu, Muslim, Buddhist, Jewish among others. REF BL 2530 .U6 N37


Bibliographical guides are reference tools designed to refer the user to the reference works available on a particular topic and to the “standard” or “best” works on a given topic.

Guide to Reference Books. Robert Balay. 11th ed. Chicago: American Library Association, 1996.
The basic working tool of reference librarians. Gives extensive lists of reference tools arranged by subject and function. Most entries have brief annotations. A first place to go to discover what the basic reference tools are in a particular area. Religion is treated on pp.388-446. REF Z 1035.1 G89

The Literature of Theology: A Guide for Students and Pastors. John A. Bollier. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1979.
A very helpful introductory guide. Lists and annotates 543 works, almost all in English. Classified arrangement with short introductions to each part. Includes lists of Bible versions and commentary series. Author and title index. REF Z 7751 .B67

Theological and Religious Reference Materials. G.E. Gorman and Lyn Gorman, with the assistance of Donald N. Matthews. 4 vols. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1984.
Vols. 1-3 (General Resources and Biblical Studies; Systematic Theology and Church History; Practical Theology) now published. Vol. 4 (Comparative and Non-Christian Religions) is forthcoming. An international guide to theological reference tools that aims at inclusion rather than selectivity. Its broad subject arrangement can make for difficult use (e.g. under "Church History: Handbooks" there are 451 entries). Rather than encouraging "browsing from the neophyte theologian," this may frustrate the user trying to find the best books. Author, title, and subject indexes. REF Z 7770 .G66

Multipurpose Tools for Bible Study. Frederick W. Danker. rev. ed. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1993.
A basic work which discusses the bibliography, history, and use of the various biblical reference tools by a Lutheran biblical scholar. Covers texts, concordances, grammars, lexicons, dictionaries, versions, and commentaries. Particularly helpful for its examples of how various tools can be effectively used. REF BS 417 .D3

Building a Pastor’s Library. Martha Aycock Sugg and John Trotti. Richmond, VA: Union Theological Seminary, 1991.
Revision of Essential Books for a Pastor’s Library (5th ed., 1976). Intended to list subject areas which should be represented in a pastor’s library and to suggest, for each category, one or more important books. Classified arrangement with brief annotations. No indexes. REF Z 7751 .R5

Book List, 1946- . London: Society for Old Testament Study, 1946- .
Lists only books. The annual book list contains critical reviews (about 150 words each) of the important OT books published in the preceding year. The reviews are signed and arranged by broad subject areas. Author index. Z 7772 .A1 S6

Reference Works for Theological Research. Robert J. Kepple and John R. Muether. 3rd ed. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1992.
A guide for students, teachers, and librarians. General works are grouped by type in pt. 1; pt. 2 arranges specialized works under Subject area lists. This edition adds a significant number of new titles and editions and a chapter on computer-assisted research. Since they are covered in James McCabe’s Critical guide to Catholic reference books, Roman Catholic works are included on a very selective basis. Index to authors, editors, titles, and alternative titles. REF Z 7751 .K46

Recent Reference Books in Religion. William M. Johnston. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1996.
Summarizes and evaluates more than three hundred contemporary reference works in religion that have been published in English, French and German. Outstanding articles and contributors are highlighted, strengths and weaknesses are carefully noted and weighed, and readers are directed to volumes whose strengths complement the weaknesses of others. Each entry includes full bibliographic details, and crossreferencing is used where appropriate. In addition to a variety of reference works elucidating ancient religions, readers will find full coverage of reference works in the modern religious traditions of Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Buddhism and Hinduism. Includes indexes of titles, authors, topics, persons, and places. REF Z 7751 .J654

Serials Directory. Birmingham, Ala.: EBSCO, c1986- . Annual.
Compiled from four sources: the international EBSCO Subscription Services database, the Library of Congress’ CONSER file, the ISSN Register, and correspondence with publishers. The 8th ed. (ji994) lists approximately 155,000 titles: periodicals classed by subject in three volumes, and newspapers-both domestic and foreign, listed by location-in one volume. Entries may contain up to 51 elements of information, including variant titles; dates of publication; ISSN; language; frequency; price; publisher and address; telephone; editor; indexing or abstracting services covering the title; circulation figures; and other data. The third volume contains eleven separate indexes for titles, ISSN, peer-review, CD-ROM availability, online availability, acceptance of advertising, controlled circulation, Copyright Clearance Center, new titles, book reviews, and impact factor. REF Z 6941 .S464 Our most recent is 1993


Old Testament Commentary Survey. Tremper Longman III. 2nd ed. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1995.
Book-by-book evaluations of OT commentaries, with critical annotations. Each work is rated on a one to five star scale and also categorized for its most appropriate audience: laypeople, ministers, or scholars. Additional chapters discuss one-volume commentaries and commentary sets, as well as other OT tools such as histories, introductions, theologies, grammars, atlases, etc. Balanced conservative perspective. CIRC DESK & REF Z 7772 .A1 L64

New Testament Commentary Survey. D. A. Carson. 4th ed. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1993.
A bibliographic essay listing, evaluating, and discussing NT commentaries from a scholarly evangelical viewpoint. General comments on a number of commentary sets are followed with a book-by-book analysis. The final page lists "some best buys” as a summary. Very helpful and relatively up-to-date. CIRC DESK & REF Z 7772 .L1 C37



The following indices are all included in the ATLA Religion Database, which resides on the two computers by the index table and cubbyholes.

Religion Index One: Periodicals. Chicago: American Theological Library Association, 1949- .
Now issued semiannually with annual cumulations. "RIO," continuing "IRPL," is the major American religious periodical index. Now indexes over 400 journals mainly in English and from North America, although some other titles are included. Covers a wide range of journals from all areas of theology. Through 1976, this index had two A-Z sections: author and subject entries for the articles; and a listing of book reviews arranged by author of the book reviewed. From 1977-1985, had three A-Z sections: subject entries, author entries (with abstracts when available), and book reviews. Beginning with vol. 18 (1986) the abstracts and book review index were eliminated and a Biblical citation index was added.

Religion Index Two: Multi-Author Works, 1960- . Chicago: American Theological Library Association, 1978- . Annual.
Two major sections: a name index for the editors (of the whole MAW) authors (of the individual essays); and a subject index that analyzes both whole MAW and the individual essay by subject. The entry under editor in first section has the full bibliographical information about the MAW and lists its contents. Uses the same subject headings, format, and typeface as Religion Index One (see above).

Index to Book Reviews in Religion. Chicago: American Theological Library Association, 1986- . Quarterly.
Annual cumulations. Subtitled: "An author, title, reviewer, series, and annual classified index to reviews of books published in and of interest to the field of religion.’’ Supersedes the "Book Review Index" of Religion Index One (see above). Good quick indexing of nearly 500 journals, with sections providing access by author and editor, title, series, and reviewer.


"Elenchus Bibliographicus" in Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses. Louvain: Universitas Catholica Lovaniensis, 1924- . Annual.
"ETL." Currently published as a separately paged section of the journal, this is the most extensive bibliography of theology and canon law published today. While it covers all areas of theology, dogmatic theology is stressed. Lists monographs, festschriften, conference proceedings, and dissertations, as well as indexing over 500 theological journals. The journals are in many languages, scholarly in nature, and include a large number of Roman Catholic works. Entries are arranged by a fairly detailed classified subject system - see the table of contents at the back of the volume. Author index. Very useful for current work but hard to search retrospectively due to its numerous separate numbers. Particularly valuable for its coverage of topics in systematic theology. Shelved in serials stacks - Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses (Usually published as numbers 2 & 3 of each volume)

Elenchus of Biblica, 1920- . Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute Press, 1920- . Annual.
Vols. 1-48 (1920-1967) issued as part of Biblica. The most extensive bibliography for biblical studies. Published annually, usually 2-3 years after the date of the material included. Covers over 1,100 journals as well as books, dissertations, etc., in the field. Classified subject arrangement; see the table of contents at the back of each volume. Includes indexes of authors and subjects, Hebrew words, Greek words, and words in other languages. No abstracts. While the index goes back to 1920, it was not so extensive then and its structure and indexing were poor. From 1960 to 1966 supplements to this bibliography were published in Verbum Domini. Note the title change beginning in 1988. This is a must tool for extensive biblical studies research.
On index table in midst of reference

Old Testament Abstracts. Washington, DC: Catholic University of America, 1978- . 3x a year.
The major indexing and abstracting tool for OT studies, similar in purpose and content to New Testament Abstracts. Includes abstracts (in English) of periodical articles in over 200 scholarly journals from many countries. Also includes a section of brief "Book Notices." Abstracts are grouped by broad subject classifications. The third issue of each year has cumulative author, Bible-passage, and semitic-word indexes. Good coverage, but only since 1978. On index table in midst of reference - also on ATLA computer nearest the current journals

New Testament Abstracts: a Record of Current Periodical Literature. Cambridge, MA: Weston College School of Theology, 1956- . 3x a year.
Provides brief English-language abstracts of articles on the NT and related areas, as well as brief "book notices." Uses a broad classified subject arrangement. Now indexes over 500 journals and lists over 500 books per year. Author, biblical-reference, book review, and book notice indexes are included in the 3rd issue of each year. A cumulative author and biblical-reference index is available for 1956-1971. Vols. 1-13 also contain a "biographical notes" section on NT scholars. Extremely valuable - the major indexing tool for NT studies On index table in midst of reference


These cover religion and theology in general. They are not necessarily restricted to individual subject areas, including in the case of the first entry, Christianity. Useful for articles on general subjects, or in some cases a particular slant on a major subject.

The Encyclopedia of Religion. [ed. in chief, Mircea Eliade; editors, Charles J. Adams ... et al.]. 16 vols. N.Y.: Macmillan, 1987.
Intended to "introduce educated, non-specialist readers to important ideas, practices and persons in the religious experience of humankind from the Paleolithic past to our day."-Foreword. Treats theoretical (e.g., doctrines, myths, theologies, ethics), practical (e.g., cults, sacraments, meditations), and sociological (e.g., religious groups, ecclesiastical forms) aspects of religion; includes extensive coverage of non-Western religions. Signed articles by some 1,400 contributors worldwide end with bibliographies. Many composite entries treat two or more related topics. Vol. 16 provides an alphabetic list of entries, a synoptic outline of contents, and an extensive general index. Has quickly become the standard work, updating Encyclopaedia of religion and ethics, James Hastings, ed. REF BL 31 .E46

New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge. 15 vols. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1977.
A revision and translation of the 3rd. ed. (1896) of the Herzog-Hauck Realencyklopädie. Preceded by the Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia (1884-91 in various editions) which is based on the 1st and 2nd editions of the Herzog-Hauck Realencyklopädie. Strong on historical, biographical, ecclesiastical, and theological topics— weakest on Bible. Includes some information on non-Christian religions as well. Note that a bibliography is found in three places: a general bibliographical survey in the preface; a bibliographical appendix at the beginning of each volume; and appended to the individual articles. Has good index. Volume 13 is the index and vols. 14 and 15 were originally published as supplements in 1955. REF BR 95 .S23

New Catholic Encyclopedia. 18 vols. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967-1989.
International in scope, emphasis on American and English-speaking areas. Contains about 17,000 signed articles, most with bibliographies, by more than 4,800 contributors. Vol. 15 is a well-done index of about 600 pages, and also lists the abbreviations and contributors. Be sure to use the index to locate specific topics. Vols. 1-15 cover up to the close of Vatican II. The supplements update the earlier articles and cover new topics. We do not own the supplements. REF BX 841 .N44

Encyclopedia of Southern Baptists. 4 vols. and index. Nashville, TN: Broadman, 1958-1982.
Treats the history, practices, and worship of the Southern Baptists. Includes signed articles with bibliographies on the organizations, institutions, colleges, newspapers, theology, important people, etc. Vol. 3 (1971) is a supplement with a separate A-Z sequence. Vol. 4 (1982), covering 1971 to 1980, includes some updating of previous entries as well as new entries on: topics of special interest in the 70s; biographies of 400 Southern Baptist leaders; and new activities, organizations, agencies, etc. of the church. REF BX 6211 .E5

The Encyclopedia of the Lutheran Church. Julius Bodensieck. Edited for the Lutheran World Federation. 3 vols. Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1965.
Broad coverage of the Lutheran church, international and ecumenical in scope. Covers Lutheran doctrine, history, practice, beliefs, persons, etc. Contains about 3,000 articles contributed by 723 Lutherans from 34 countries. No index, few (and weak) bibliographies REF BX 8007 .B6



Useful as a starting point or complete answer from scholars on specific questions. Are more indepth than the single volume encyclopedias.

The Anchor Bible dictionary. David Noel Freedman, ed. in chief; associate editors, Gary A. Herion, David F. Graf, John David Pleins; managing editor, Astrid B. Beck. 6 vols. N.Y.: Doubleday, 1992.
"Every generation needs its own Dictionary of the Bible" (Introd.) and this work fills that need admirably. 1,000 contributors, mostly North American, have provided 6,200 entries, some as long as 40 pages; most have bibliographies. Entries cover every proper name, major words, each book of the Bible, Apocryphal texts, Dead Sea scrolls, and Nag Hammadi codices. Gives much attention to cultural history, social institutions, and method. In the area of word studies this work does not attempt to supplant important previous publications such as The interpreter’s dictionary of the Bible. Uses cross references, but an index would improve access. REF BS 440 .A54

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. Geoffrey Bromiley, ed. Full rev. ed. 4 vols. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1979-1988.
A "new, or at least a completely reconstructed," edition of the earlier "ISBE" (1930). Articles represent an attitude "of a reasonable conservatism," and the evangelical scholars who have contributed represent a variety of denominations and countries. Its purpose is "to define, identify, and explain terms and topics that are of interest for those studying the Bible." A mixture of short unsigned articles and longer signed articles with selected bibliographies is used. REF BS 440 .I6

Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible. 4 vols. New York: Abingdon, 1962.
"An Illustrated Encyclopedia Identifying and Explaining all Proper Names and Significant Terms and Subjects in the Holy Scripture, including the Apocrypha; with Attention to Archaeological Discussions and Researches into the Life and Faith of Ancient Times" (Subtitle). Generally considered the best Bible encyclopedia available today. 250 scholars contributed the articles (most are signed), which have selective bibliographies and numerous illustrations. Moderate to extreme liberal viewpoint in most articles. A basic place to begin research on a biblical topic. REF BS 440 .I63


Used primarily for quick reference to find answers to specific questions.

Harper’s Bible Dictionary. Paul J. Achtemeier, gen. ed. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1985. now the HarperCollins’ Bible Dictionary, 1996.
A totally revised edition with all new articles, illustrations, and maps. Produced in cooperation with the Society of Biblical Literature with 179 scholars from seven countries contributing articles on biblical archaeology, geography, chronology, etc. 3,700 entries, with photographs, maps, drawings, charts, and a pronunciation guide. Longer articles have bibliographies. REF BS 440 .H235

The Eerdmans Bible Dictionary. Allen C. Myers, ed. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1987.
An expanded and updated translation of Bijbelse Encyclopedie (1975). Contains over 5,000 unsigned articles on biblical books, persons, places, etc. Some longer articles have bibliographies. REF BS 440 .G7613

The New International Dictionary of the Bible. J. D. Douglas, revision editor, Merrill C. Tenney, general editor. Pictorial ed. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1987.
Revision of the Zondervan Pictorial Bible Dictionary (1963). A good, single volume Bible encyclopedia with 5,400 entries, 1,000 illustrations, and 167 maps. Written by 65 conservative evangelical scholars. Includes index to maps. REF BS 440 .N44

New Westminster Dictionary of the Bible. Henry S. Gehman, ed. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1970.
A thorough reworking and updating of the 1st ed. (1944). Useful for pastors, students, and laymen; Protestant viewpoint. Includes about 4,000 brief entries, indicates pronunciations where necessary, but has no bibliographies. REF BS 440 .G35

Dictionary of the Bible. James Hastings. Rev. ed. Rev. by F. C. Grant and H. H. Rowley. New York: Scribner, 1963.
A total revision of the 1st ed. done by Hastings in 1909. Includes contributions by 150 American and British biblical scholars. Protestant viewpoint, based on the Revised Standard Version. Has short signed articles without bibliographies. REF BS 440 .H52


Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East / prepared under the auspices of the American Schools of Oriental Research. Eric M. Meyers ed. in chief. 5 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
This comprehensive five-volume work analyzes the archaeological and linguistic data that pertain to the broad cultural milieu of the ancient Near East, the crossroads of three of the world’s most influential religions—Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Ranging from prehistoric times up to the early centuries of the rise of Islam, the work covers the civilizations of Syria-Palestine, Mesopotamia, Anatolia, Iran, Arabia, Cyprus, Egypt, and the coastal regions of North and East Africa. It includes 1,125 alphabetically arranged entries on sites, languages, material culture, archaeological methods, organizations and institutions, and major excavators and scholars of the field. Volume five includes over 15 tables of Egyptian Aramaic texts, a chronology, 12 maps, a synoptic outline of contents, and an index. REF DS 56 .O9

Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land. Edited by Avraham Negev. Rev. ed. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1986.
Brief articles on "the majority of the geographical names mentioned in the Bible, both places in the Holy Land and countries and cities in other parts of the Middle East, identifying them as far as possible, describing the excavations that have been carried out at or near them, and analysing the importance of the finds they have yielded." Written by 32 archeologists. No bibliographies. Gives references to the Bible, Josephus, and other early writers. REF DS 111 .A2 A73

New International Dictionary of Biblical Archaeology. E. M. Blaiklock and R. K. Harrison, gen. eds. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1983
.About 800 signed articles by 20 scholars on a wide range of topics related to Biblical archeology, including archaeological sites and ancient customs. Some articles have bibliographies. Illustrations, color plates and maps (with a map index) are added features that make this a valuable tool for layman and specialist. REF BS 622 .N48

Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land. English ed. 4 vols. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1975-1978.
Intended as a "summary of excavation work in Israel," this edition covers work done through 1971. Includes, under the name commonly used in scholarly circles, articles on nearly 200 sites, each describing the history, excavations, and discoveries at that location. Vol. 4 has indexes of names and of places for the entire work. REF DS 111 .A2 E5313


Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels. editors, Joel B. Green Scot McKnight; consulting ed., I. Howard Marshall. Downers Grove, Ill: InterVarsity Pr., 1992.
Signed articles, with ample bibliographies and scripture references, cover important Gospel themes and concepts; the Gospels themselves; types of biblical interpretation; aspects of Jesus’ life and ministry. A work of Protestant scholarship that attempts to be "both critically responsible and theologically evangelical" (Pref), this dictionary is the first of its kind since James Hastings’ Dictionary of Christ and the Gospels (see below). Scripture and subject indexes. REF BS 2555.2 .D53

Dictionary of Paul and His Letters. Gerald Hawthorne and Ralph Martin, eds. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 1993.
Signed articles, with ample bibliographies and scripture references, cover important Pauline themes and concepts; the epistles themselves; methods of interpretation; background topics. This dictionary presents “the fruit of evangelical New Testament scholarship at the end of the twentieth century - committed to the authority of Scripture, utilizing the best of critical methods, and maintaining dialogue with contemporary scholarship and challenges facing the church.” (book jacket) Scripture and subject indexes. REF BS 2650.2 .D53

Dictionary of Christ and the Gospels. Ed. by James Hastings. 2 vols. New York: Scribner’s, 1906-1908.
A complement to his Dictionary of the Bible, this work is intended to cover everything relating to Christ and the Gospels in the Bible and in world literature. Includes long signed articles with good bibliographies. Indexed by subject and by Greek terms. Dated but still useful. REF BS 440 .H3 C5

Dictionary of the Apostolic Church. Ed. by James Hastings. 2 vols. New York: Scribner’s, 1916.
Designed to complement the above work. Covers the history of the early church from Christ’s ascension to the end of the first century. Long signed articles with bibliographies. Includes indexes. Dated but still useful. Note: The above two works were reprinted in 1973 by Baker Book House as a 4-volume set under the title: Dictionary of the New Testament. REF BS 440 .A18 H4

Dictionary of the New Testament. Xavier Leon-Dufour. New York: Harper, 1980.
Translation of Dictionnaire du Nouveau Testament. A compact, scholarly dictionary of about 1,000 NT terms needing historical, theological, literary, and/or archeological explanation, as well as important terms in NT study today. Provides, with each entry, a listing of relevant biblical references. Has an excellent system of cross-references to other relevant articles in the dictionary, and an index of Greek words cited in the dictionary. REF BS 2312 .L4513


A Dictionary of Biblical Interpretation. R. J. Coggins and J. L. Houlden, eds. Philadelphia: Trinity Press International, 1990.
350 signed articles, with bibliographies, from 150 contributors, intended to introduce issues of biblical interpretation to general readers. Explains topics used in contemporary scholarship, including influential figures, schools of interpretation, Biblical books and figures, and major terms. A useful tool, although the selection of topics and quality of the entries are uneven. Includes subject and Scripture indexes. REF BS 440 .D494


Dictionaries of theological terms and in some cases of the Greek and Hebrew terms actually used by the biblical writers.

Dictionary of Biblical Theology. Xavier Leon-Dufour, ed. 2nd rev. and em. ed. Trans. by P. J. Cahill. New York: Seabury, 1973.
Translation of Vocabulaire de théologie biblique (2nd ed., Paris: Ed. du Cerf, 1968). Intended primarily for Roman Catholic laity and clergy, it is "theological and pastoral in approach." Arranged by broad topics, with extensive discussion and bibliographical references. Many cross-references, analytical table of contents. REF BS 543 .A1 L43

Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology. Walter A. Elwell, ed. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1996.
The only single volume dictionary of biblical theology from an evangelical perspective. Entries are based upon Greek and Hebrew, but do not require knowledge of the languages. Covers over 500 topics with signed articles by more than 125 contributors. Articles often contain short bibliographies for further research. Includes a Scripture index at the end. REF BS 440 .E78

New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology. Colin Brown, ed. 4 vols. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1986.
This work is a translation, extensively revised and enlarged, of the widely acclaimed Theologisches Begriffslexikon zum Neuen Testament. It contains discussions of the major theological terms of the New Testament, arranged in English alphabetical order. These discussions cover the use of the term in classical Greek, the Old Testament, rabbinic writings, as well as the New Testament. Each entry also includes bibliographies. The first volume also incorporates a glossary of technical terms; and the fourth volume is composed of five indices: a Scripture index; an index of extrabiblical literature; an index of Hebrew and Aramaic words; an index of Greek words; and a general index. REF BS 2312 .N48

New International Dictionary of Old Testament Theology and Exegesis. Willem VanGemeren, ed. 5 vols. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1997.
This work is intended to supplant Harris, Archer, Waltke Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament (see below). It contains more than 3,000 separate entries, written by more than 200 scholars from 24 countries and over 100 institutions. Also includes thousands of cross-reference entries. The lexical dictionary is preceded by a “Guide to Old Testament Theology and Exegesis” (v.1 pp.3ff.) which includes 11 essays covering introductory topics, written by recognized authorities in their fields. The lexical dictionary is followed by a topical dictionary in volume four, giving articles of a more standard Bible dictionary scope. Volume five consists of indexes of semantic fields, Hebrew words, Scripture, subject, and numbering system (converting Strong’s numbers to Goodrick-Kohlenberger). REF BS 440 .N438

Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament. G. Johannes Botterweck and Helmer Ringgren, eds. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1974- .
Known as "TDOT" or the "OT Kittel." Seven volumes ( --*lys) of a projected 12-volume set published thus far. A translation of Theologisches Wörterbuch zum Alten Testament, vols. 1 and 2 were issued in two editions due to translation problems: 1st ed., 1974-75; rev. ed. 1977. Includes extensive, well-documented articles on "theologically significant" Old Testament words, including information drawn from other Near Eastern languages. REF BS 440 .B5713

Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament. Edited by R. Laird Harris, Gleason L. Archer, and Bruce K. Waltke. 2 vols. Chicago: Moody Press, 1980.
Has over 1,400 articles by 43 scholars that discuss every Hebrew word of theological significance in the OT. Also provides the definitions of all other words. Articles stress theological, not linguistic, understanding and include bibliographies. For the English-only user, a cross-index from the "Hebrew word number" in Strong’s Concordance to entries in this wordbook is appended. REF BS 440 .T49

Theological Dictionary of the New Testament. Edited by G. Kittel and G. Friedrich. 10 vols. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1964-76.
Known as "Kittel" or "TDNT." Translation of the Theologisches Wörterbuch zum Neuen Testament, which began publication in 1932. Contributors are almost all German biblical scholars. Older articles are somewhat dated, and the English edition does not update the German bibliography. The long, scholarly, and well-documented articles analyze the background and usage of many NT words. Indispensable for NT research. Vol. 10, the Index, includes indexes for English key words, Greek words, Hebrew and Aramaic words, biblical references, and for contributors. The index also has brief biographical information on the contributors and a short "Pre-History of the TDNT." Note: The 10th volume of the German edition is different and includes different indexes and additional bibliographical information. REF BS 2312 .K4


Concordances arrange the words in the Bible alphabetically so that a user can find a particular verse by referring to one or more of the key words in it or can find where a given word occurs in a given translation.

The NIV Exhaustive Concordance / Edward W. Goodrick, John R. Kohlenberger III. Grand Rapids, MI.: Zondervan Pub. House, cl990.
Identifies the original Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek words for which the English object words are translations, and lists in a separate sequence, with biblical citations, the articles, conjunctions, particles, prepositions, and pronouns. Gives frequency count for each word and contexts for each keyword, as well as introducing the G/K numbers (meant as a replacement of Strong’s). Contains Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek concordances and indexes correlating this work to James Strong’s Exhaustive concordance of the Bible. The same editors also compiled The NIV Complete Concordance. REF BS 425 .G62

The Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible. James Strong. New York: Abingdon, 1890.
Many editions and reprints have been published. The most complete English concordance of the King James Version, covering all words (occurrences of 47 of the most common, e.g. "the" and "and," are listed in an appendix). Totals about 40O,OOO entries. Under each English word, a single list of all its occurrences is given. Along side each occurrence, an entry number indicates the Greek or Hebrew word being translated. The entry numbers refer to the numbered Hebrew and Chaldee dictionary and the biblical Greek dictionary at the back of the concordance. REF BS 425 .S8

Analytical Concordance to the Bible. Robert Young. New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1881.
Many editions and reprints have been published. Later editions include a variety of supplementary articles about the Bible. Includes 311,000 entries under the English words of the King James Version, subarranging the entries by the Greek and/or Hebrew word(s) being translated. Also includes a list of names of persons and places. At the back is an "index lexicon" which lists the Hebrew and Greek words of the original text, gives their meaning, and indicates the English word(s) used to translate each and number of times it is used. REF BS 425 .Y7


Topical Bibles arrange small portions of the biblical text under specific topical headings so that the user can find the texts that relate to a given topic or theme even though the topic or theme itself may not be among the words used in the text.

Nave’s Topical Bible: a Digest of the Holy Scripture. Orville Nave. New York: International Bible Agency, 1897.
Reprinted numerous times under various titles, this is the most widely known topical Bible. Lists more than 100,000 references to Scripture under 20,000 topics and subtopics. Each entry tries to briefly bring together all that the Bible contains on a particular topic. REF BS 432 .N29

The Zondervan Topical Bible. Edward Viening. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1969.
Although it does not say so, this work is based on Nave’s Topical Bible, but is slightly revised and reorganized. Slightly preferable to Nave’s. REF BS 432 .V5


The Harper Atlas of the Bible. Ed. by James B. Pritchard. New York: Harper & Row, 1987.
Covers historical eras—OT, intertestamental, and NT—with full color photographs, drawings, and 134 maps, accompanied by an extensive, readable text. Uses a new method of projecting maps, replacing a "flat projection with a more readable one" that depicts the curvature of the earth’s surface. Includes extensive chronology, glossary, and a name-place index. A high quality, visually attractive, and up-to-date atlas. ATLAS TABLE

The Macmillan Bible Atlas. Yohanan Aharoni and Michael Avi-Yonah. Rev. ed. New York: Macmillan, 1977.
One of the better Bible atlases, emphasizes the Holy Land. Contains over 250 maps arranged chronologically, covering from the Caananite period up to the 2nd Jewish revolt. Includes explanatory text, bibliographical references, and an index/gazetteer. REF G2230 .A2

Moody Atlas of Bible Lands. Barry J. Beitzel. Chicago: Moody Press, 1985.
Arranged in three sections: physical geography, historical geography, and a survey on the history of biblical map-making. Three indexes (map citation index, Scripture index, and index to extra-biblical literature) and a time line. Altogether includes 95 color maps. A good technical reference atlas, with a balanced conservative approach. No gazetteer. REF G2230 .B44

Zondervan NIV Atlas of the Bible. Carl Rasmussen. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1989.
Designed for the non-specialist, a conservative commentary with good color photographs and high-quality maps. Divided into geographical and historical sections. Text discussion not well-coordinated with maps. Extensive gazetteer. BS 630 .R37



Concise Dictionary of the Christian Tradition. J. D. Douglas, Walter Elwell, and Peter Toon, eds. Grand Rapids, MI: Regency Reference Library, 1989.
A one volume reference work of doctrine, liturgy, and history. Contains nearly 3500 terms and names from the history, teachings, and liturgy of the church. Entries are brief definitions and descriptions for quick reference. Includes cross-references at the end of entries and terms with their own entries used in descriptions are asterisked. REF BR 95 .D67

Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. F. L. Cross and E. A. Livingstone, eds. 3rd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
First published in 1957, this is the standard one-volume reference work for church history. Its broad coverage includes many biographies, as well as definitions of ecclesiastical terms and customs. Includes about 6,000 entries, most with good and often extensive bibliographies. Emphasis on Christianity in Western Europe, especially Great Britain, stressing the Anglican and Catholic churches. Relatively poor coverage of American Christianity. REF BR 95 .O8

The New International Dictionary of the Christian Church. J. D. Douglas, ed. Rev. ed. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1978.
Similar in scope to the Oxford work, but about two-thirds as long and with much less extensive bibliographies. Offers better coverage of North American and world Christianity. Has over 4,800 brief signed articles which include bibliographies, written by 150 contributors from the perspective of evangelical Protestantism. 2nd ed. is not substantially different from the first. REF BR 95 .D68

Westminster Dictionary of Church History. Jerald C. Brauer, ed. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1971.
Offers brief unsigned articles "concerning the major men, events, facts, and movements in the history of Christianity." Emphasizes modern church history and the American scene. Some articles have brief bibliographies. REF BR 95 .W496

The Wycliffe Biographical Dictionary of the Church. Elgin Moyer, revised and enlarged by Earle E. Cairns. Chicago: Moody Press, 1982.
Previous edition (1968) titled Who Was Who in Church History. Offers brief information on 2,000 individuals in church history, stressing evangelicals and black leaders of the United States and Africa. Now includes a "Chronological Index and Outline of Church History" which lists, with very brief biographical information, the names of individuals from each time period that are in this dictionary. Some entries are inaccurate, but helpful for information on lesser-known evangelicals and fundamentalists not listed elsewhere. REF BR 1700.2 .M66


Encyclopedia of Early Christianity. Everett Ferguson, 2nd ed. 2 vols. New York: Garland, 1997.
A comprehensive treatment of the development of Christianity from the life of Christ to 600 AD. Nearly 1,245 signed entries from 167 contributors describe persons, places, doctrines, practices, art, liturgy, heresies, and schisms of the early church. Articles are non-technical and designed for general readers, and are accompanied by good bibliographies. Extensive index. REF BR 162.2 .E53

Dictionary of the Middle Ages. 13 vols. Joseph R. Strayer, ed. in chief. New York: Scribner, 1982-1989.
5,000 articles written by 1,300 scholars. Intends to cover every aspect of medieval life in Western Europe, Islam, Byzantium, and the Slavic world from AD 500 to 1500. Includes illustrations, maps, and bibliographies (chiefly limited to English-language works). While the scholarship is routine but acceptable, this is the only multi-volume English-language work covering all aspects of the Middle Ages. Volume 13 is an index. REF D 114 .D5


Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation. Hans J. Hillerbrand, editor-in-chief. New York: Oxford, 1996.
Comprising four volumes, 1,200 articles, and more than 1.3 million words, it focuses on the entire range of religious and social changes wrought by the Reformation, including not only issues of church polity and theology but also related developments in politics, economics, demographics, art, and literature. Topical categories of coverage include sites, regions, and polities; historical events; religious groups and movements; ecclesiastical institutions; creeds, confessions, and texts; theology; social history; and popular religion, as well as biographies and Reformation studies. The alphabetically arranged articles range from brief 300-word biographies of minor figures to major interpretive and synthetic treatments of topics such as the Eucharist, Lutheranism, the Catholic Reformation, cities, Calvinism, women, the Radical Reformation, law, education, Jews, humanism, the Bible, social welfare, justification, and art. Related entries cover such subjects as saints and sainthood, literacy, the French Wars of Religion, the Augsburg Confession, the Council of Trent, music, the Holy Roman Empire, persecution, apocalypticism, peasants, and magistracy. Volume four includes 8 maps, a synoptic outline of contents, and an index. REF BR 302.8 .O93

Encyclopedia of the Reformed Faith. Donald McKim, ed. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1992.
This work “provides a picture of the major events, persons, and theological understandings of the Reformed Faith... It seeks to provide a circle of knowledge indicating how events, persons, and concepts have been particularly significant in the Reformed heritage” (preface). The entries are relatively short, signed, include bibliographies, and are all written from the reformed perspective. REF BX 9406 .E56


Dictionary of Christianity in America. Daniel G. Reid, coordinating ed. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1990.
An objective and thorough treatment of all aspects of American religion, giving "comprehensive attention to the evangelical tradition in America." An initial essay surveying the history of Christianity in America is followed by over 2,400 signed articles from 400 contributors, including biographies, events, movements, ideas, and denominations. Predominantly historical in focus, but covers some contemporary movements and individuals as well. Includes bibliographies and extensive cross-references. REF BR 515 .D53

Encyclopedia of the American Religious Experience. Charles H. Lippy and Peter W. Williams, eds. 3 vols. New York: Scribner’s, 1987.
105 lengthy thematic essays (arranged in nine parts) with extensive bibliographies written by some of the leading scholars on American religion. Interdenominational and interdisciplinary, each essay is written with a view "to the significance of the subject in the development of American society and culture." A valuable summary of the current scholarship on American religion. Includes cross-references and a detailed index. REF BL 2585 .E53


The Creeds of Christendom: with an History and Critical Notes. Phillip Schaff. 6th ed. 3 vols. New York: Harper, 1919.
Vol. 1 contains essays on the history of creeds, church by church, with many bibliographies. Vol. 2 contains the creeds of the Greek and Latin churches. Vol. 3 includes the creeds of the Evangelical Protestant churches. Each creed is given in its original language with an accompanying English translation. Each volume has an index of subjects. REF BT 990 .S4

The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Religious Creeds. 2 vols. J. Gordon Melton, ed. 1st ed. Detroit: Gale, 1988.
Contains 450 creedal statements of Christian, Jewish, and other faiths in the United States and Canada. Ch. 1 lists ancient creeds, and chs. 2-23 arrange creeds under broad religious families. For foreign language creeds a contemporary English translation was chosen. Includes some historical notes, but no theological exposition or textual analysis. Indexed by creed/organization name and keyword. REF BT 990 .E58


Ante-Nicene Fathers: translations of the writings of the Fathers down to A.D. 325 / Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson, eds. American reprint of the Edinburgh ed., rev. and chronologically arranged with brief prefaces and occasional notes by A. C. Coxe. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1951.
A collection of the writings of the Apostolic Fathers down to 325 CE, in English translation. Contents of American edition: v. 1-8, Text; v. 9, Bibliographical synopsis, by E. C. Richardson. General index to v. 1-8, by Bernard Pick; v. 10, Additional volume, containing early Christian works ... and selections from the commentaries of Origen, etc., Allen Menzies, ed... REF BR 60 .A5

Select library of Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian church / ed. by Philip Schaff. Ist-2nd series, trans. into English. 28 v. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1956.
English translations of the "most important works of Greek Fathers from Eusebius to Photius, and of the Latin Fathers from Ambrose to Gregory the Great."-Pref. Lacks a general index, but has subject and scripture indexes in each volume. REF BR 60 .N4 - 1st series; REF BR 60 .S4 - 2nd series

Fathers of the Church. Hermigild Dressler et al., eds. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America, 1947-
94 of the planned 100 volumes of this series of translations of the works of many of the church fathers up to approximately 600 AD have been published. The works contain translations with notes, introductions to the various fathers and their works, as well as indices. BR 60 .F3

Loeb classical library / founded by James Loeb. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Pr., 1912- . v. 1- .
An extensive collection of several hundred volumes in two series, Greek and Latin. Each volume prints parallel texts of the original and an English translation on facing pages, with a brief introduction and a bibliography. The publisher issues periodic catalogs for the set, but there is as yet no general index. Indexes to individual authors, while they vary in kind and value, are frequently useful for locating a subject or specific passage. Some volumes are issued in parts; some have revised editions. Beginning in 1965, the publisher issued reprints of selected volumes. Greek - PA 3611 and PA 3612 Latin - PA 6156



New Dictionary of Theology. Sinclair B. Ferguson, David F. Wright, J. I Packer, eds. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1988.
Over 630 entries from 205 international scholars. Includes biographies and biblical, systematic, and historical perspectives. Selective bibliographies and extensive cross-references. A good, concise, and up-todate dictionary for both general readers and specialists. REF BR 95 .N38

Evangelical Dictionary of Theology. Walter A. Elwell, ed. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1984.
Successor to Baker’s Dictionary of Theology (1961). 1,200 articles, some with bibliographies, from 200 contributors (mostly American and British), representing a variety of evangelical viewpoints. Includes entries on the Bible, church history and biographies, but the stress in each entry is on the "theological dimension" of the subject. REF BR 95 .E87

The Westminster Dictionary of Christian Theology. Alan Richardson and John Bowden, eds. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1983.
A major revision of the 1969 edition. Like the earlier edition, focus is on "theological thinking" rather than on historical events. Biographical entries have been dropped (although there is a name index). The 175 contributors are more international than the mainly British earlier edition, and the 600 articles focus on contemporary developments, such as non-Christian religions and political theology. REF BR 95 .W494


Glossary of Liturgical and Ecclesiastical Terms. Frederick George Lee. London: Bernard Quaritch, 1877. Reprinted Tower Books, 1971.
Contains short entries/definitions of terms related to the liturgy and ecclesiastical life of the nineteenth century. Written from an high-church perspective, therefore deals heavily with terms from the Catholic and high-church Anglican perspectives. Excellent for definitions of formal church terms and terms related to high church or Catholic practices. REF BR 95 .L4

Dictionary of Latin and Greek Theological Terms. Richard Muller. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1985.
Articles cover Greek and Latin terms, both biblical and post-biblical, that are meaningful in theology. All entries include a literal definition and, when necessary, a longer expanded definition and explanation is given. The entries range from one line to about two pages, with most being several lines. Includes notes on historical usage and origin of term. REF BR 95 .M86

Westminster Dictionary of Theological Terms. Donald McKim. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1996.
Includes more than 6,000 terms from theology, biblical studies, church history, ethics, feminist theology, liberation theology, ministry, philosophy, social sciences, spirituality, worship, etc.. Definitions are short and easy to understand. Much more comprehensive and in-depth than the Compact Dictionary of Doctrinal Words (see below). Includes some Greek and Latin terms. Very useful. REF BR 95 .M378

Compact Dictionary of Doctrinal Words. Terry L. Miethe. Minneapolis: Bethany House, 1988.
Slightly longer entries than most dictionaries dealing with over 550 doctrinal terms. Written for the nontheologian, is very understandable. Entries range from popular to more esoteric. Many articles contain a bibliography for further study.


The Westminster Dictionary of Christian Ethics. James F. Childress and John McQuarrie, eds. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1986.
A new edition, two-thirds of which is new material. Consists of 620 entries (most with bibliographies) from 167 contributors. Presents "various perspectives" from "a wide range of religious traditions and academic disciplines" on the major issues in ethics and morality. REF BJ 1199 .W47

Baker’s Dictionary of Christian Ethics. Carl F. H. Henry, ed. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1973.
Contains moderate length essays and numerous short entries on all aspects of Christian ethics by 263 wellknown evangelical scholars. All articles are signed but only occasionally have bibliographies, and those are short. REF BJ 1231 .B34

Encyclopedia of Bioethics. Warren T. Reich, ed. in chief. 5 vols. New York: Macmillan, 1995.
A widely acclaimed major work in the field, dealing with the major issues in the area as well as specifics. The 300 articles, each with a bibliography, include the latest scholarship and give thorough coverage to this topic. Fully cross-referenced and indexed. Indispensable when working in bioethics. REF QH 332 .E52

The Encyclopedia of Ethics. Lawrence G. Becker, ed.; Charlotte B. Becker, co-editor. 2 vols. N.Y.: Garland, 1992.
Contains 435 signed articles by 267 distinguished academic philosophers, covering a wide variety of ethical concepts (e.g., theories of the good) as well as ethical questions raised by contemporary social issues (e.g., capital punishment). Substantial survey articles describe both Eastern and Western ethical traditions as well as specialized areas such as environmental ethics. Includes a number of biographies. Each article contains a bibliography and references to related articles. Subject index; index of authors or editors cited in the bibliographies. REF BJ 63 .E45

Dictionary of Ethics, Theology, and Society. Paul Barry Clarke and Andrew Linzey eds. New York: Routledge, 1996.
Contains over 250 signed articles by about 160 contributors, offering “a unique synthesis of Judaeo-Christian approaches to social and political issues of wide concern as well as analysing theological and secular positions on matters of religious practice and belief.” (cover) Each entry includes a brief definition of the term, a description of the principal ideas behind it, an analysis of its history, development and contemporary relevance, followed by a bibliography. REF BJ 1199 .D45

New Dictionary of Christian Ethics and Pastoral Theology. David Atkinson and David Field, eds. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 1995.
Combines articles on ethics, psychology, and practical theology. Is formatted in two parts, the first contains eighteen keynote articles arranged in “theological” order. These “give a basic introduction to the main themes of Christian ethics and pastoral theology.” The second part consists of over 700 signed articles by 240 contributors and in most cases include bibliographies. When relevant, the articles refer back to the keynote articles. Includes biographies of ethicists, theologians, economists, psychologists, and British counselors. REF BJ 1199 N495


Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Edited by Paul Edwards. 8 vols. New York: Macmillan, 1967, 1996.
The major English-language work in the field, this work covers the whole of philosophy. A good starting point when researching a topic in philosophy. Over 1,400 articles are generally on broad subject areas—you must use the index to find specific topics. The long signed articles include bibliographies, many with annotations. Cumulative index found in the supplement. REF B 51 .C5


The Westminster Dictionary of Christian Spirituality. Gordon S. Wakeman. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1983.
Intended to provide "direct access to the whole development and present state" of Christian spirituality. About 150 international scholars have contributed over 350 articles representing international and ecumenical perspectives. Many biographical entries among the signed articles. Bibliographies are appended to most articles. REF BV 4488 .W47

Baker’s Dictionary of Practical Theology. Ralph G. Turnbull, ed. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1967.
Intended to be "a source book for pastors and students." Ten major topical sections: preaching, homiletics, hermeneutics, evangelism and missions, counseling, administration, pastoral, stewardship, worship, and education. Under each heading are a number of essays on aspects of the topic, complete with bibliographies. Indexed by subject and by persons. Conservative and American orientation. REF BV 3 .B3


Dictionary of Pastoral Care and Counseling. Rodney J. Hunter, ed. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1990.
A comprehensive guide to almost every topic related to pastoral care and counseling, designed for "a wide range of religious caregivers," from professional specialists to laypeople. 1,200 articles, some very extensive, from 600 Protestant, Catholic, Orthodox, and Jewish contributors. Includes biographies, psychological theories, doctrinal issues, historical studies, illness and disorders, and legal and practical issues. Bibliographies and extensive cross-references. REF BV 4011 .D43

A Dictionary of Pastoral Care. Alastair V. Campbell, ed. New York: Crossroad, 1987.
An interdenominational (mostly Christian, but some Jewish) and interdisciplinary approach to pastoral care, with topics both theoretical and practical. Far less extensive than Hunter (above), includes 300 entries by 185 authors, most accompanied by bibliographies. REF BV 4005 .D53

Encyclopedia of Psychology. Raymond J. Corsini, 2nd ed. 4 vols. New York: Wiley, 1994.
An authoritative work consisting of 2,100 entries ranging from short biographies to long articles on major subjects. All fields of psychology are covered by the 500 contributors, all specialists in their fields. The consulting editors are all former presidents of the American Psychological Association. Vol. 4 includes a 15,000 item bibliography and author and subject indexes and over 700 biographies. REF BF 31 .E52

Baker Encyclopedia of Psychology. David G. Benner, ed. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1985.
1,050 signed articles by evangelical scholars covering the entire field of psychology from a Christian perspective. Dictionary arrangement, with a "Category Index" that guides the user to articles under 12 broad categories. Includes 100 biographical entries. Some articles have bibliographies. REF BF 31 .B25


Biographical Dictionary of Christian Missions. Gerald H. Anderson, ed. New York: Simon & Schuster Macmillian, 1998.
"The names included here compose a virtual Who's Who in the history of the expansion of Christianity." (preface) This work includes articles on 2,400 people in the post-New Testament history of Christianity down to the present, representing Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Anglican, Protestant, Pentecostal, independent, and indigenous churches. The signed articles are written by 349 scholars in 45 countries and include brief bibliographies. The work also includes an index and a page with the “standard reference works." REF BV 3700 .B56

Concise Dictionary of the Christian World Mission. Stephen Neill, Gerald H. Anderson, and John Goodwin, eds. Nashville: Abingdon, 1971.
An international and ecumenical dictionary covering from 1492 to the present. Covers all aspects of the extension of the church and its evangelistic work. The brief articles are signed and include bibliographies. Entries for persons and organizations are included. A valuable, if brief tool. REF BV 2040 .N4

The Encyclopedia of Modern Christian Missions: the Agencies. Burton L. Goddard, et al., eds. Camden, NJ: Nelson, 1967.
Prepared by the Gordon Divinity School faculty. Gives primary coverage to Protestant missions with survey articles on missions in other traditions. Focuses on mission organizations, describing their history, activities, organization, etc. Most of the 1,400 articles have bibliographies. Includes an index by country and area, and a supplementary index by organization names. REF BV 2040 .E53

The Encyclopedia of Missions: Descriptive, Historical, Biographical, Statistical. Henry O. Dwight, H. Allen Tupper, and Edwin M. Bliss, eds. New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1904.
Covers mission organizations, the countries where missions were located, mission stations, missionaries, special topics, etc. A-Z dictionary format with numerous (and sometimes extensive) entries. Of importance in studying the history of missions. The appendices are an extensive bibliography; a list of Bible versions; a list of mission societies and addresses; a list of mission stations; an extensive set of statistical tables; and a general index. REF BV 2040 .E5

Mission Handbook: USA/Canadian Protestant Ministries Overseas. John A. Siewert and John Kenyon, eds. 1993-95 ed. Grand Rapids, MI: MARC/Zondervan, 1995.
Editors and titles of earlier editions vary. Aims to provide "a convenient reference to descriptive and statistical data on all North American Protestant overseas ministries or related ministries with overseas operations, plus analytical and interpretative material." Includes brief essays on missions topics, information on the many agencies listed, a mass of statistical data, and various indexes to this material. REF BV 2050 .M5


A Dictionary of Religious Education. Ed. by John M. Sutcliffe. London: SCM Press, 1984.
Over 200 contributors have produced about 340 signed articles, most of which are accompanied by bibliographies. Very few biographical entries, but there is an index of names. Intended to be international in scope and inclusive of all religious faiths, but the heavy emphasis is on British religious education. REF BV 1461 .D5


The New Westminster Dictionary of Liturgy and Worship. J. G. Davies, ed. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1986.
Covers the liturgy and worship of the major and minor Christian groups with brief accounts of other major religions. Articles give a definition of each item, its historical background, its interpretation, and its current significance. Most of the articles, written by a wide variety of scholars, have bibliographies. Articles on topics of widely varying opinion have two or more sections by representatives of various viewpoints. The 1986 edition takes into account recent trends in liturgy and worship. REF BV 173 .N49

The Oxford Book of Prayer. George Appleton, gen. ed. London: Oxford University Press, 1985.
A collection of 1,120 selections, arranged in seven chapters. Intended to be useful both for private meditation and public worship. Primarily Christian, but also includes prayers from other religious traditions. Author/source index and subject index. BV 245 .O94

A Dictionary of Hymnology: Origin and History of Christian Hymns and Hymn writers of All Ages and Nations. John Julian. Rev. 2nd ed., with new supplement. 2 vols. New York: Scribners, 1907.
Reprint, Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel, 1985

Still the most comprehensive and authoritative work on the Christian hymns of all ages. Includes signed articles with bibliographies on hymnology, hymn writers, and individual hymns. Besides the main A-Z dictionary section, the work includes a cross-reference index to first lines in English, French, German, Latin, etc.; an index of authors and translators of hymns; and various supplements to the main work. REF BV 305 .J8

Hymns and Tunes: an Index. Katharine Smith Diehl. New York: Scarecrow, 1966.
Indexes the hymns from 78 English-language hymnals by first lines, variant first lines, and authors. Indexes hymn tunes by names and variants and by composer. Also includes a systematic index to the melodies and other useful appendices. REF BV 305 .D5

Familiar Quotations: a Collection of Passages, Phrases and Proverbs Traced to Their Sources in Ancient and Modern Literature. John Bartlett. 15th rev. and enl. ed. Emily M. Beck, ed. Boston: Little, Brown, & Co., 1980.
A standard tool for finding apt quotations on a given topic or for tracing the origin of known sayings. Quotations are arranged chronologically by the author’s dates. Access to these is provided by an extensive 100,000-entry key-word index. REF PN 6081 .B27

Encyclopedia of Religious Quotations. Frank S. Mead, comp. Westwood NJ: Revell, 1965.
A collection of around 10,000 religious quotations arranged under 170 subject headings. Contains Christian and non-Christian sources. Includes index of authors and topics. REF PN 6084 .R3 M4

Granger’s Index to Poetry. Edith Granger. 8th ed., completely rev. and enl., indexing anthologies published through June 30, 1985. Ed. by William F. Bernhardt. New York: Columbia University Press, 1986.
An extensive index to poetry by title and first line. Also gives a location in an anthology where the entire poem may be found. Includes author index and subject index. REF PN 1022 .G82

Masterpieces of Christian Literature in Summary Form. ed. Frank N. Magill with Ian P. McGreal. New York: Harper & Row, 1963.
Includes 2,000-word essay-reviews of 300 books dealing with the Christian movement. Materials were selected and reviewed from a Protestant viewpoint (see also the companion volume, Masterpieces of Catholic Literature in Summary Form (New York: Harper & Row, 1965). Useful for a quick summary of what a work is about and some idea of its importance. REF BR 50 .M22


Encyclopaedia Judaica. 16 vols. Jerusalem: Encyclopaedia Judaica, 1971-1972.
Often cited as the authority on Jewish topics. A comprehensive view of world Jewry and its history. Over 25,000 signed articles, most with bibliographies, include many biographies, including living figures. Use the extensive (about 200,000 entries) index (vol. 1) for best results. This index uses letter-by-letter, not word-by-word, alphabetizing. REF DS 102.8 .E496

Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion. R.J. Zwi Werblowsky and Geoffrey Wigoder eds. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
Contains nearly 2,400 entries ranging from short definitions to lengthy essays on major topics. Includes entries on concepts, beliefs, and practices of historical and contemporary Jewish religious practice. It covers all aspects of Jewish practice, law, and theology as expressed in the Bible and the Talmud and by philosophers throughout history. The work also includes biographical sketches of important personalities associated with the development of the Jewish religion over the centuries. The signed entries include short bibliographies to aid further research. REF BM 50 .O94

ed. Herbert Danby, New York: Oxford University Press, 1933. Reprinted 1987.
ed. Jacob Neusner, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996.

These are the two main English translations of the Mishnah. The first translation (by Danby) is the standard translation, albeit older than Neusner’s. The English may be more confusing than Neusner’s, but is divided in the usual fashion making it easier to read longer passages. Danby also includes notes on the text in the form of footnotes. At the end, he includes a glossary of untranslated Hebrew terms, tables of money, weights, and measures, the rabbinical teachers quoted grouped by date, the rules of uncleanness an alphabetical list of abbreviated titles of the tractates of the Mishnah, an index of biblical passages quoted, and a general index. BM 497.5

Neusner's translation is in modern English and is divided by him to facilitate understanding of the discourse. This however, makes it somewhat disjointed to read long passages. He includes at the end a short glossary, an index, and also an index of Biblical references. His introduction is long and does not reflect the consensus of Mishnaic scholarship. REF BM 497.5 .E5 N48

Talmud of the Land of Israel. ed. Jacob Neusner. 35 vols. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989.
Offers new translations of the Talmud Yerushalmi. Includes comments at the end of the each Talmudic section dealing with the individual Mishnaic pericopes. The commentary is primarily limited to tracing the logic of the ideas presented - making following the discourse much easier. Not much in the way of commentary on the background of issues, etc.. Notes vary in character and length between the volumes. Each volume includes at the back Abbreviations, Bibliography, and Glossary, index of Biblical and Talmudic references, and a general index to that volume. Volume 35 is solely an introduction to the Talmud. REF BM 498.5 .E5

The Babylonian Talmud. Trans. into English with notes, glossary, and indices under the editorship of Isidore Epstein. 18 vols. London: Soncino Pr., 1978.
An important unabridged and annotated translation of the Babylonian Talmud, using the text of the Vilna Romm edition with variant texts noted and occasionally used. Extensive notes throughout employ the work of standard Hebrew commentators. Each volume includes a glossary and scriptural and general indexes. A separate index volume for the entire set includes a glossary, detailed general index, and rabbinical index. REF BM 500 .E57


The concise encyclopedia of Islam. Cyril Glassé. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1989.
Offers articles of moderate length with cross-references, arranged alphabetically by English words or transliterations of Arabic words. From a Sunni perspective; focuses on outward religious forms (e.g., commandments, observances, and texts), and on inner religious and metaphysical truths. Contains three sections of photographic color plates and four appendixes: maps illustrating Islamic history; Mecca and the Hajj; branches of Islam; genealogical tables. Chronology and bibliography of primary and secondary sources. REF BP40 .G6

Shorter encyclopaedia of Islam. ed. on behalf of the Royal Netherlands Academy by H. A. R. Gibb and OH. Kramers. Leiden: Brill; London: Luzac, 1953.
Consists mainly of articles on the religion and law of Islam taken from the first edition of The Encyclopaedia of Islam (1911-38), with the addition of some new entries and the revision of some of the older material. Bibliographies have often been updated, and there is a useful Register of subjects, which indexes the entries under English-language headings. REF BP 40 .G5



Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar. Ed. and enl. By E. Kautzsch. 2nd English ed. rev. By A, E, Cowley. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1910.
Along with the two following resources, this is the standard for English language reference of Biblical Hebrew. It concludes with paradigms, an index of subjects, an index of Hebrew words, and an index of passages. The one thing to remember is that this work is older (1910) and therefore occasionally things such as terminology differ from the following works. The information is arranged and cited in the standard chapter/section (number), subsection (number), paragraph (lowercase letter) - e.g., 21.2a. REF PJ 4564 .G5

A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew. Paul Joüon. Translated and rev. by T. Muraoka. 2 vols. Roma: Editrice Pontificio Istituto Biblico, 1993.
Quickly becoming the standard reference for Biblical Hebrew. This work is the most up-to-date of the standard references. It is a much more thorough over-all treatment that either Gesenius or Waltke-O'Connor, although Waltke-O'Connor is more thorough on the strictly syntactical. The work includes a section of paradigms and three indices - Hebrew words, subjects, and passages. Two things to note are that the table of contents is in the first volume and the indices and paradigms are in the second. Again, the work is arranged and cited like Gesenius. REF PJ 4567 .J7613

Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax. Bruce K. Waltke and M. O’Connor, eds. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1990.
This large volume (765 pp.) joins Gesenius and Joüon-Muraoka as the standard grammatical reference works for Biblical Hebrew. The work consists of 40 chapters in five main categories: introductory; nouns; adjectives, numerals, and pronouns; verbal stems; and verbal conjugations and clauses. This is topped with a glossary of grammatical terms (very handy); a very extensive categorized bibliography; and four indices -topics, authorities, Hebrew words, and Scripture references. The information is arranged and cited in thestandard fashion (see Gesenius above).REF PJ 4707 .W35

A Cumulative Index to the Grammar and Syntax of Biblical Hebrew. Frederic Clarke Putnam compiler. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1996. This work indexes by verse (following the Hebrew order of books and verse numbering) the citations in 14 of the standard reference grammars of Biblical Hebrew. These include not only Gesenius, Joüon-Muraoka, and Waltke-O'Connor but also 11 other standard grammars (some more advanced, some in German, and one Aramaic grammar for the appropriate sections). A very handy one stop shop for research on a particular passage - allows the student to locate the citations of their passage in the reference grammars without having to go to each individually, saving time and effort. PJ 4553 .P87


A Concise Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament. William Holliday. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1971.
This work is much smaller than BDB (see below) and hence less comprehensive. It is also much easier to use having some entries as found in the Bible to guide users to the proper root and fuller entry. This work is suitable for quick reference while reading, but not adequate for research purposes. Beware of the separate Aramaic section at the end - the alphabet is the same and beginning users will not be able to distinguish the difference and will be frustrated by their inability to find any of the words (the Aramaic section is quite small and follows the Hebrew, so beware if you are at the back of the book and there seem to be few entries). REF PJ 4833 .H6

Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament. Frances Brown, S. R. Driver, and Charles. A. Briggs. New York: Oxford, 1907.
The standard Hebrew lexicon in English. For research purposes this is the place to go. It can often be difficult to find the proper definition since it is arranged by root and includes great detail in each entry. As with Gesenius above, it is necessary to remember that the work is old and does not include recent scholarship (e.g., Ugaritic) - however, it still remains unsurpassed in philological depth and scope (for a discussion of strengths and weaknesses see the foreword to Einspahr’s index below). The newer reprints code the entries to Strong’s Concordance. REF PJ 4833 .G4 R

Index to the Brown, Driver, Briggs Hebrew Lexicon. Bruce Einspahr. Chicago: Moody Press, 1976.
This work is meant to make using the BDB (above) more user-friendly. It is not meant to replace it. Arranged by Biblical citation (book, chapter, verse) is every citation listed in the BDB. This means that by going to a specific verse, the user can see every word in that verse that is defined by BDB and specifically cited in that verse. This means that not every word of every verse is listed (especially for the very common words). Cited with the Hebrew is a very short English translation as well as the page, quadrant (the left column is divided into a and b, and the right column into c and d), and section of the BDB entry where the reference can be found. A quick way to locate the more unusual words or conjugations in BDB. REF PJ 4833 .B683 E35


Old Testament Parsing Guide. Todd S. Beall, William A. Banks, Colin Smith, eds. 2 vols. Chicago: Moody Press, 1986-90.
This work lists every verb form in order of occurrence in the Old Testament according to verse. Each entry gives the Hebrew form, the stem, tense, person, gender, number, root, page on which to find it in BDB, the person, gender, number of any suffix on that occurrence, and finally a short English equivalent for the root. REF PJ 4645 .B43

Analytical Key to the Old Testament. John Joseph Owens. 4 vols. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1990.
This volume follows the Hebrew text chapter/verse by chapter/verse. The entries give a Hebrew word or, more commonly, phrase followed by a brief parsing, the relevant BDB and occasionally Gesenius citation, and an English translation (usually following the RSV). A cheat-sheet that can upon occasion lead one astray. Still very useful for quick help. REF PJ 4731 .B56 O94

A New Concordance of the Bible. Abraham Even-Shoshan, ed. Jerusalem: "Kiryat Sefer" Publishing House, 1989.
A concordance of the Hebrew text of the Old Testament listing all words and terms that occur (although some of the most commonly occurring entries do not include an exhaustive listing of occurrences) in alphabetical order (not by root). This work is a partial translation of the original Hebrew work. It is partial in that the citations are given in English, but the main uses and synonyms of each entry remain in Hebrew. This work is much friendlier looking than the original Hebrew work. For more information on concordances in general see the concordance section above. REF BS 1121 .E9

A Simplified Guide to the BHS. William R. Scott. Berkeley, CA: BIBAL Press, 1990.
Gives brief understandable explanations of the divisions; special points, unusual letters, and other marks; the Masora; critical apparatus; accents; symbols and abbreviations; a transliteration of names and terms; an abbreviated bibliography; an English key to the Latin words and abbreviations and the symbols of the BHS; and a table of Hebrew numbers on the back cover. An excellent place to gain a general understanding of any unusual mark, etc. in the BHS. Also, a great quick reference on symbols, abbreviations, and Latin terms used. REF BS 715



A Grammar of New Testament Greek. James Hope Moulton. 4 vols. Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1906 - 76.
Written over the course of 70 years by Moulton and others, this work (especially volume three on syntax) is commonly used as a reference tool. As they were written by different authors over such a wide range of time, each volume is slightly different in what is included (e.g., indices included). Volume one, Prolegomena, is an overview of Greek. Volume two, Accidence and Word-Formation, is a more in-depth account of primarily morphology; it includes an appendix on semitisms in the New Testament. Volume three, Syntax, is exactly that. And the fourth volume is an account of the style of the individual books/authors of the New Testament. REF PA 813 .M7


The Analytical Lexicon to the Greek New Testament. William D. Mounce. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1993.
Unlike normal lexicons, an analytical lexicon lists each form found. Under each entry is included the inflected form (i.e., the form as found in the text and looked up), the parsing, the number of times it occurs in the New Testament, a morphological tag (see preface), the G/K, (from the NIV Exhaustive Concordance above), and the lexical form of the word (for more information on the use of each item, see the preface). Under the entry for a lexical form a full lexical entry is given. This work is very useful to save time searching for an unusual form or word. REF PA 881 .M74

A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. Walter Bauer. Second edition revised and augmented by F. Wilbur Gingrich and Frederick Danker. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979.
One of the standard lexicons. Also gives the usage of the word in other writings of the time, as the title suggests. REF PA 817 .B38


A Grammatical Analysis of the Greek New Testament. Max Zerwick. Rome: Editrice Pontifico Istituto Biblico, 1993.
A small volume that parses and translates most of the words of the New Testament. Arranged by book/verse, this is an handy tool for quick reference. It should be noted that the parsings are often incomplete (giving only the information that the authors found necessary) and they place restrictions on which words that will be included (i.e., not every word of the text is explained). For a full list of restrictions, the user should read the page immediately preceding the beginning of the analysis of Matthew. REF BS 1965.2 .Z413

The Exhaustive Concordance to the Greek New Testament. John R. Kohlenberger III, Edward W. Goodrick, and James A. Swanson. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1995.
REF BS 2302 .K655
The Greek English Concordance to the New Testament. John R. Kohlenberger III, Edward W. Goodrick, and James A. Swanson. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1997.
REF BS 2302 .K657

A concordance of the Greek text listing all words found in the UBS4 and the NIV. For each entry the G/K number (see NIV Exhaustive Concordance), the Greek term, and the frequency. This is followed by the G/K numbers of all related words, and the citations given in Greek (the Greek English Concordance to the New Testament is the same except that the English equivalent to the Greek term is given and the citations are given in English). 2,977 significant and frequent phrases are indexed as well.

© 2005 by Covenant Theological Seminary Library. Used by permission.

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